Wykłady zaproszonych gości
Values and Subjective Well-Being: What we know and what we want to know
Shalom Schwartz (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
This talk will summarize what we know about relations between values and subjective well-being (SWB). It will also identify some important things we do not know about these relations but would like to know. I will briefly discuss the nature of values and the structured system they form, according to my theory of basic values that form a circular motivational continuum. I will then present three theoretical perspectives on relations of values to SWB. The first perspective seeks to explain direct relations between values and SWB. Research across cultures has revealed inconsistent relations. I will present recent research that clarifies the direct relations and also seeks to explain their cross-cultural variation by pointing to societal-level moderators. The second perspective examines the congruence (or similarity) between people’s values and the values prevailing in their environment as a determinant of SWB. I will provide some examples of findings and ask what are the necessary conditions for value congruence to promote SWB. The third perspective sees the attainment of valued goals as the source of SWB. This research raises the question of whether the content of the valued goals that are attained matters. Does attaining any goal enhance SWB? I will discuss these perspectives and the literature based on them, and note ideas for future research.
A Challenge for a Carbon-Negative Society
Robert Gifford (University of Victoria)
Most people understand that climate change is an important problem, but too few global citizens are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases. Why? Structural barriers obviously can prevent climate-friendly actions, but psychological barriers also impede behavioral choices that would facilitate climate change mitigation and adaptation. Although many individuals engage in some ameliorative action, most could do more. We are hindered by
seven categories of psychological barriers, the “dragons of inaction.” These are: (1) limited cognition about the problem, (2) ideological worldviews that tend to preclude pro-environmental attitudes and behavior, (3) comparisons with key other people, (4) sunk costs and behavioral momentum, (5) discredence toward experts and authorities, (6) perceived risks of change, and (7) helpful but inadequate behavior changes. Structural barriers must be removed wherever possible, but this is unlikely to be sufficient. Psychologists must work with other scientists, technical experts, and policy-makers to help citizens overcome these psychological barriers. Different policies and strategies are needed for different climate-impactful behaviors and population segments, and these
will be discussed.